History of Mental Illness and Treatment
BC: 10,000 years ago use of trepanation or trepanning to release the evil spirit or discomfort of the individual demonstrating "unusual" behavior.
400s: Ancient Greece, Hippocrates uses humours to explain mental disorders. First to explain mental health in relation to physical body.
1200s: 13th century development of "Lunacy Trials" held in England to test a person's sanity.
1330: Dark & Middle Ages Religious explanations again take precedence over medical explanations.
1547: St Mary of Bethlehem hospital becomes the first asylum to devote treatment just to people with mental disorders.
Most people held the view that people with a mental disorder were choosing to act inappropriately or had a character flaw. Thus, began the stereotype that social class and status played a role in the person's mental disorder.
1676-1770: Asylums seen as a means of entertainment. St. Mary of Behtlehem had "Sunday Tours."
Inhumane and often painful treatments were used. Patients were usually shackled, restrained, beaten and starved.
1700s-1800s: Moral Movement Philippe Pinel in Europe. Dorthea Dix in North America.
1835: First asylum in Canada to open was in New Brunswick.
1856-1939: Sigmund Freud. Freud later became known as the father of psychoanalysis.
1879: Wundt opens first psychological laboratory. This is when the progression of scientific research in psychology started.
1911: Asylum established in Ponoka AB. Massive overcrowding leads to poor treatment conditions for patients across Canada.
1913: Introduction of Behavioral Psychology. Treatment using positive and negative reinforcement. Famous contributors to the paradigm are Pavalov, Watson, Tolman, Hull.
1918: Clarence Hinks, with help from Clifford Beers, form the Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene. Later to become Canadian Mental Health Association.
1920-50: Experimental treatments such as insulin shock therapy, and frontal lobotomies were used.
1950s: Psychopharmacology produces first medications. Tranquilizers (chlorpromazine) and anti-depressants
1955: CMHA Calgary is established.
1961: Humanistic Psychology Famous contributors are Maslow and Rogers. Follow the idea that every person has a "hierarchy of needs" and view treatment in a holistic manner.
1976: Cognitive Psychology. The study of the dynamics of perception and thought in the brain. Important contributors are Piaget, Miller and Neisser.
1970s-1980s: Deinstutionalization of mental health facilities leads many individuals with mental health issues into jails and homelessness due to lack of community services.
1990s: Introduction of SSRI's. Advances in research lead to a new form of medications to treat depression.
2002: World Health Organization estimates 154 million people globally have clinical depression; 25 million have schizophrenia, 91 million suffer from alcohol related disorders.
2009: Mental Health Commission of Canada launches "Opening Minds", a ten year anti-stigma initiative.